Forget everything you know about compatibility that Canon taught you. AF-S is an indicator that a particular lens has a built-in motor... which generally means snappier AF and also full compatibility with the smaller consumer bodies such as the D40, D40X, D60, D3000, D3100, D5000, etc. Those bodies don't have a motor for driving AF focus on lenses that don't already have it built in, which means AF.
As for compatibility, the ONLY issues you need to know with Nikon lenses and body combinations is this:
There is a DX-specific range of lenses - and they will have a "DX" designation on the side. They feature a smaller image circle geared towards the APS-C size sensors in the DX bodies. These lenses may not have sufficient coverage for the FX bodies such as the D3X, D3S, D3 and D700, at least not without some level of vignetting and at most apertures.
The Nikon F-mount has virtually remained for dozens of years... meaning any Nikon Nikkor lens that is AI, AIS, AF, or AFS will mount on literally any digital Nikon body. The only TRICK is that they may not meter with the camera body if it's a lower-end digital body, such as the D40 (again, etc). Most newer bodies - including the D7000, and any pro or prosumer body from recent years - will allow you to program the older AI / AIS lenses to allow the camera to communicate with them, meaning you can adjust the aperture with the aperture ring and the camera will read it and meter. Pre-AI lenses (we're talking pretty darn old ones now) won't mount without modification on digital bodies.
What you're talking about though - something as current as an AF-S lens - will mount no problems on the D700. Provided the lens in question isn't a DX lens, you're good to go. And even if it is, you still may be able to use it with some vignetting. Plus, the full frame (FX) bodies can all shoot in DX-crop mode, with a reduced overall image size / resolution.
Well put DJ. Basically, you`ll get enormous flexibility on a D700 on almost all Nikkor lenses going back 20 years or more (as a very broad statement), as long as the mount works. Nikon have been very great for that. And on the D700, you can even select the DX format. Incredible when you think of it. We`re lucky folks...