I am sure Nikon 1 can be found in S/h market.
For compact and high quality maybe Ricoh GR, it is APS-C sensor with fixed 28mm equivalent lens or Nikon equivalent, A1 I think it was called, discontinued, 28mm is good travelling lens, think Leica Q on the cheap.
Don't know yet. I want to learn and experiment. Maybe the Nikon 1 is the best fit for me, but I want to try everything that a sophisticated camera can do. I'll read instructions and tutorials until I understand what the skilled photographers are doing. Then I might default to leaving everything on auto and taking the usual tourist snaps. Or I might do the opposite. I will have plenty of time, which I think is probably the key.I'm just guessing from your context, but are you just going to be shooting jpeg?
eta: My long cycling trips are nothing like yer average working man's holiday. I'm not on the beach with demanding children, trying to cram some relaxation into a fortnight. I'm lying around at a hostel or camp site with hours to spare.